What Is A Drilling Rig
Simple diagram of a drilling rig and its basic operation.
- Mud tank
- Shale shakers
- Suction line (mud pump)
- Mud pump
- Motor or power source
- Vibrating hose
- Kelly hose
- Traveling block
- Drill line
- Crown block
- Worker platform
- Stand (of drill pipe)
- Pipe rack (floor)
- Swivel (On newer rigs this may be replaced by a top drive)
- Kelly drive
- Rotary table
- Drill floor
- Bell nipple
- Blowout preventer (BOP) Annular type
- Blowout preventer (BOP) Pipe ram & blind ram
- Drill string
- Drill bit
- Casing head or Wellhead
- Flow line
What Is A Pumpjack
A schematic of a typical oil well being produced by a pumpjack which is used to produce the remaining recoverable oil after natural pressure is no longer sufficient to raise oil to the surface.
How Oil Was Formed
Oil was formed from the remains of animals and plants (diatoms) that lived millions of years ago in a marine (water) environment before the dinosaurs. Over millions of years, the remains of these animals and plants were covered by layers of sand and silt. Heat and pressure from these layers helped the remains turn into what we today call crude oil. The word “petroleum” means “rock oil” or “oil from the earth.”
Products Made from a Barrel of Crude Oil
Did You Know Crude Oil Can Be Sweet or Sour?
Crude oil is called “sweet” when it contains only a small amount of sulfur and “sour” if it contains a lot of sulfur. Crude oil is also classified by the weight of its molecules. “Light” crude oil flows freely like water, while “heavy” crude oil is thick like tar.
After crude oil is removed from the ground, it is sent to a refinery by pipeline, ship, or barge. At a refinery, different parts of the crude oil are separated into useable petroleum products. Crude oil is measured in barrels.
A 42-U.S. gallon barrel of crude oil provides about 45 gallons of petroleum products. This gain from processing the crude oil is similar to what happens to popcorn, which gets bigger after it is popped.
Oil & Gas Well Hydraulic Fracturing Animation – Video
Hydraulic fracturing is a proven technology used safely for more than 60 years in more than a million oil and natural gas wells. It uses water pressure to create fissures in deep underground shale and sand formations that allow oil and natural gas to flow. First used in the U.S. in 1947, the technology has been continuously improved.
Recent innovations combining this technology with vertical and horizontal drilling in shale and sand formations has unlocked vast new supplies of oil and natural gas. This allows America to access the energy it needs today and transform our energy future.
Click on our video to the left to learn more about hydraulic fracturing.
Salt Water Disposal: An EPA Approved Method for Managing Produced Water – Video
All water associated with the production of oil and natural gas must be transported to an approved and licensed Salt Water Disposal (SWD) facility. When no water pipeline system is in place to transport the water, trucks must be used to transport the water to the SWD.
Once the saltwater arrives at the SWD, any remaining oil is salvaged from the water prior to pumping it into the disposal well. The final step in saltwater disposal is injecting the saltwater into underground formations deep below the surface, sometimes over a mile in depth.
“When wells are properly sited, constructed and operated, underground injection is an effective and environmentally safe method to dispose of wastes.” — Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Click on our video to the left to learn more about salt water disposal.